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Periodontal Disease and Diabetes

It is well documented that people who suffer from diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections than non-diabetes sufferers.  It is not widely known that periodontal disease is often considered the sixth complication of diabetes, particularly when the diabetes is not under proper control.

Periodontal disease (often called periodontitis and gum disease) is a progressive condition that often leads to tooth loss if treatment is not promptly sought.  Periodontal disease begins with a bacterial infection in the gingival tissue which surrounds the teeth.  As the bacteria colonize, the gum pockets become deeper, the gums recede as tissue is destroyed and the periodontitis eventually attacks the underlying bone tissue.

Diabetes is characterized by too much glucose (or sugar) in the blood.  Type II diabetics are unable to regulate insulin levels which means excess glucose stays in the blood.  Type I diabetics do not produce any insulin at all.  Diabetes is a serious condition which can lead to heart disease and stroke.

Reasons for the Connection

Experts suggest the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease can worsen both conditions if either condition is not properly controlled.

Here are ways in which diabetes and periodontal disease are linked:

  • Increased blood sugar – Moderate and severe periodontal disease elevates sugar levels in the body, increasing the amount of time the body has to function with high blood sugar.  This is why diabetics with periodontitis have difficulty keeping control of their blood sugar.  In addition, the higher sugar levels found in the mouth of diabetics provide food for the very bacteria that worsen periodontal infections.

  • Blood vessel thickening – The thickening of the blood vessels is one of the other major concerns for diabetes sufferers.  The blood vessels normally serve a vital function for tissues by delivering nutrients and removing waste products.  With diabetes, the blood vessels become too thick for these exchanges to occur.  This means that harmful waste is left in the mouth and can weaken the resistance of gum tissue, which can lead to infection and gum disease.

  • Smoking – Tobacco use does a great deal of damage in the oral region.  Not only does tobacco use slow the healing process, it also vastly increases the chances of an individual developing periodontal disease.  For diabetics who smoke, the risk is exponentially greater.  In fact, diabetic smokers aged 45 and over are twenty times more likely to develop periodontal disease.

  • Poor oral hygiene – It is essential for diabetics to maintain excellent levels of oral health.  When daily brushing and flossing does not occur, the harmful oral bacteria can ingest the excess sugar between the teeth and colonize more freely below the gum line.  This exacerbates the metabolic problems that diabetes sufferers experience.

Diagnosis and Treatment

It is of paramount importance for people suffering from any type of diabetes to see the dentist at least twice yearly for checkups and professional cleanings.  Studies have shown that simple non-surgical periodontal treatments can lower the HbA1c (hemoglobin molecule blood test) count by as much as 20% in a six month period.

The dentist will use medical history, family history and dental X-rays to assess the risk factors for periodontal disease and determine the exact condition of the gums, teeth and underlying jawbone.  If necessary the dentist will work in conjunction with other doctors to ensure that both the diabetes and the gum disease are being managed and controlled as effectively as possible.

Non-surgical procedures performed by the dentist and dental hygienist include deep scaling, where calculus (tartar) will be removed from the teeth above and below the gumline, and root planing, where the root of the tooth is smoothed down to eliminate any remaining bacteria.  Antibiotics may be applied to the gum pockets to promote healing.

Before and after periodontal treatment, the dentist and hygienist will recommend proper home care and oral maintenance as well as prescribing prescription mouthwashes which serve to deter further bacteria colonization.

If you have questions or concerns about diabetes or periodontal disease, please contact our office.

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Testimonials

I WISH I COULD GIVE YOU 10 STARS!!!!
Omg!!! SOOOOO happy I found you!!!
I've had these 4 veneers on my front teeth for about 5 years, put on, again, and again and again, after pop offs and cracks and breaks, and several thousands of dollars, by another Santee dentist's office (won't mention who).
After about 4 years of miraculously no problems, I felt a familiar crunch while biting into a fish taco... I was so upset, I just froze staring at this tiny piece of porcelain in my hand. The tears starting welling up as I was reminded of the nightmares I often have of this exact thing happening on a date, or during a job interview... I knew I wouldn't be able to enjoy the rest of my mom's birthday lunch w my daughters, and luckily, I decided to drive myself. I held back the tears, apologized and asked that they wrap up the rest of my meal and I'll see you at home, and ran to my car, wanting to just vomit.... I'm not too vain, am I?
Not just for vanities sake, but the thought of coming up with another 2 grand to fix this, again, was taunting me! My head was spinning. I felt like I had been kicked in the jaw - literally.
First thing I did, after having a few glasses of wine to calm down, was do a search on Yelp. Dr. Fossett was the first to come up -- but still wanted to give my old office a chance, seeing as especially how They WERE THE ONES WHO PUT THE ORIGINALS ON. But, they offered no rest for my weary soul -- no discounts, no deals and no financing. And a replacement will cost @2000!!
I called Dr. Fossetts office next and was enchanted by Robyn, who understood my plight and offered all the help she could; gave me a rough estimate on cost (final cost was LESS than what she quoted!), and applied for Care Credit for me over the phone.
I could go on and on about how my appointment went -- didn't even have to sit or wait, was brought back for a consultation immediately. Not expecting to have everything even started the same day, the assistant and Dr. Dave came back in two minutes and said, let's get started!
Not more than 30 minutes later, I looked in the mirror to the most gorgeous "Temporary" veneer I have ever seen!! I mean, I'd be happy w this for years! The last office would spackle on this horrible looking crap that had no esthetically pleasing value at all!! THIS is a premier job!
And I'm a chronic perfectionist! Especially when it comes to my looks (hair, teeth, ect).
SO IF IM HAPPY, YOU BETTER KNOW THE JOB WAS STELLAR!!!
Thank you Dr. Fossett and staff-- THANK YOU!!!

Vanessa M.

Yesterday was my first visit to this wonderful Dental office. I haven't felt more welcome and comfortable in a Dental facility since I was 19... Now 31 years young. I grew up, going to a father/son dental group and Dr. David and Dr. Douglas Fossett had the same family centered vibe and conservative but smart dental care I've been searching for! As a Registered Nurse, quality care and patient centered care is the core of my own practice. Dr. David and Dr. Douglas exemplify this to a tee! I've finally found my go to family Dental office. I feel like a weight has been lifted off my shoulders after getting a second option from these very well informed Dentists!

Haylee R.

Great office!!! From the moment I walked in I felt very welcomed by the staff. I'm always nervous when going to the dentist no matter how many times I go, however after my visit to Dr. Fossett's office I felt much more relaxed and at ease. They did everything they could to make me comfortable. I felt the staff was very knowledgeable and answered any questions I had. The assistants are top notch . The smiles , kind hearts and exceptional service will keep me coming back. Thank you to the office for a positive experience.

Rachel Y.

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